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Could structural changes in the retinal layers be a new. Do you think about a patient who overdosed or someone who is experiencing a toxic side effect from a medication. A lot of times, the answer might depend on what we remember about a drug when we hear the name.

For example, if I said a patient had acetaminophen toxicity you might first think the effects were related to an overdose, but if I said the patient had drug toxicity from cyclophosphamide, you might presume, since it is a chemotherapeutic agent, that it was related to a drug side effect. The point is, patients can experience drug toxicity from some exposures with both therapeutic and supratherapeutic dosing.

Unfortunately, sometimes we only think about drug toxicity based on the situations we commonly see. We often forget toxicity can occur with some drugs in multiple situations. Case in point being valproic acid (aka valproate). However, valproic acid is one of several drugs (e. Valproic acid is FDA approved for use as an antiepileptic, for the prevention of migraines, and for manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder.