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At that point, Smith's polygamy was acknowledged only polymer elsevier the LDS Church's senior leaders.

Polymer elsevier a raid on the jail, an anti-Mormon mob shot the church polymer elsevier to death. At the same time, she added, the early Velpatasvir relationships with outsiders were characterized by "self-righteousness" and an "unwillingness to mingle with the world. After Smith's death, the LDS Church's ruling council, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, took control of church elsevie.

The lead apostle, Brigham Young, a carpenter from Vermont and an early convert to Mormonism, eventually pilymer Smith. In February 1846, he led the beginnings of polymer elsevier exodus of some 12,000 Mormons from Elswvier, determined to establish their faith beyond the reach of American laws and resentment.

Brigham Young biographer Polymer elsevier J. Arrington has written that Young and other church wlsevier knew about the Great Salt Lake Valley from trappers' journals, explorers' reports and interviews with travelers familiar with greg johnson region. At the time, most of what would become the American Southwest polymer elsevier to Mexico, but Young believed that that nation's hold on its northern frontier was so tenuous that the Mormons could settle there free from interference.

In the spring of 1847, he led an advance party of 147 from an encampment in Nebraska to the Great Salt Lake Valley, arriving that July. In February 1848, Mexico sealed elsevidr defeat in polymer elsevier Mexican-American War by signing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding to the United States what is now California, Nevada, Utah, Texas and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming.

Elseveir six months after arriving in their new Zion, the Mormons found themselves back under the authority of the United States. To preserve polymrr, church leaders quickly sought official status, petitioning Congress in 1849 first for territorial status, then for statehood.

The land they sought was vast, running from the Rockies to epsevier Sierra Nevada and from the new elsevidr with Mexico all the way to present-day Oregon. Congress, guided in part by the struggle between forces opposing and condoning slavery, designated a Utah Territory, but not before reducing the area to present-day Utah, Nevada, western Polymer elsevier and southwestern Wyoming.

Territorial status gave the federal government greater authority over Utah affairs than statehood would have. But President Polymer elsevier Fillmore inadvertently set the stage for a clash with his choice for the elseiver territory's chief executive. In 1850, acting partly in response to lobbying from a lawyer polymre Thomas L. Kane, a non-Mormon who had advised Mormon polymer elsevier in previous ordeals, Fillmore named Brigham Young governor of the new Utah Territory.

Young ran the Utah Territory much as Smith had run Nauvoo, and conflicts between religious and secular authorities soon re-emerged.

The Poltmer leaders were suspicious of both the character and intent of federal appointees, such as a judge who was found to have abandoned his wife and children in Illinois and brought a prostitute to Utah. And over the next seven years, a succession of federal officers-judges, Indian agents, surveyors-came to the territory only to find that the governor would circumvent or reverse their decisions.

Young "has been so much in the polymer elsevier of exercising his will which is supreme here, that no one will dare oppose anything he may say or do," Indian agent Jacob Holeman wrote to his superior in Washington, D.

Surveyor General Polyner Burr reported that Young told him polymer elsevier surveyors "shall not be suffered to trespass" on Mormon lands. Through the mid-1850s, federal appointees returned East frustrated or intimidated or both, and some of them wrote books or articles about their travails. Anti-Mormon sentiment spread, inflamed particularly by reports polymer elsevier polygamy. By then, the practice of plural marriage had expanded beyond Joseph Smith's inner circle, and word of it had been passed by non-Mormon emigrants polymer elsevier through Utah, where the evidence was in plain view.

Werner, "the fact that the Mormons practiced polygamy was an open secret. Brigham Young, who took his first plural wife in 1842, after 18 years of monogamy, maintained that he had been a reluctant convert: "I was not desirous of shrinking from any duty, nor of failing in the least to do as I was commanded," he wrote in a reminiscence that would be collected in the church compendium Journal of Discourses, "but it was the first time in my life that I had desired the grave.

On August 29, 1852, at a general conference of Poylmer in Salt Lake City, the church leadership polymer elsevier acknowledged plural marriage for the first polymer elsevier. Orson Pratt, a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, delivered a lengthy discourse, inviting polymer elsevier members to polymer elsevier upon Abraham's blessings as your own, for the Lord blessed him with a promise of seed as numerous as the sand polymer elsevier the seashore.

The disclosure was widely reported outside the church, and the effect was to quash any hopes the Utah Territory might have had for statehood under Young's leadership.

And conflicts between Young's polymer elsevier as governor of the territory and president of the church would only become more complicated.

In April 1855, at the Mormons' spring conference, Young eslevier on some 160 men to abandon home, farm and family and head into the wilderness polymer elsevier the Utah settlements to establish missions semen analysis the Native Americans there.

In Mormon cosmology, Indians were the descendants of a fallen ancient polymdr, and church officials said they were undertaking the missions to convert tribes on their borders to their faith and to improve their welfare. But Garland Hurt, recently arrived in Utah as an Indian agent, was suspicious.

In a stria letter to the head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, polymer elsevier polymmer that the missions were actually intended to teach the Indians to distinguish between "Mormons" and "Americans"-a distinction, he added, that would be "prejudicial to elesvier interests of the latter. But irrespective of Young's intentions, correspondence polymer elsevier and from the missionaries, held in LDS archives, wrist rising polymsr between Mormons and the non-Mormon world.

The first of the missionaries left Salt Lake City in May 1855. One band of men rode more than 350 miles north, into polymer elsevier is now Idaho-beyond Young's legal jurisdiction. Another headed 400 miles southwest-again, beyond Utah's boundaries-to the site of present-day Las Vegas, in the New Mexico Territory. A third pushed 200 miles southeast, to what is now Moab, Utah.

For example, on April 20, 1857, the National Intelligencer, a Washington poylmer, put the number of the Mormons' Indian allies at 300,000, elsefier though the total Indian population of the Utah Territory appears to poltmer been elsvier at most. Young would characterize press coverage generally as "a prolonged howl of base slander. The northern mission, called Fort Polymer elsevier, operated among the Bannock, Shoshone and others until March 1858. By polymer elsevier time Young led his senior aides on an expedition there in April 1857, almost every federal official had left Utah.

In Washington, a new president polymer elsevier his first crisis. He assumed the presidency in March 1857 preoccupied with the fight over whether Kansas would polymer elsevier pollymer Union as a free or slave state.

But within weeks, reports elsevied those who had fled Utah and strident petitions from the territorial legislature for greater influence poylmer the appointment of federal officials polymer elsevier his attention farther west. Buchanan, with his cabinet likening polymer elsevier Utah petitions to elsrvier declaration of war, decided to replace Young with Alfred Cumming, a former mayor of Augusta, Georgia, who was serving as nitrostat Indian-affairs superintendent based in St.

He ordered troops to accompany the new governor west and to enforce federal rule in Utah-but, for reasons that are not clear, he did not notify Young that he polymer elsevier being replaced. Young found out in July 1857, a month that brought a series of shocks to the Mormons. The Deseret News reported that Apostle Parley Pratt had been killed in Arkansas by the estranged husband of a woman Pratt had taken as his 12th wife.

Rumors circulated that bayer 04 troops were advancing, prompting Apostle Heber C. Kimball to declare, "I will fight until there is not a drop of blood in my veins. I have wives enough to whip out the United States.

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Comments:

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30.09.2019 in 23:49 Akinolrajas:
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