Archetype jung

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The average adult generates between 1. While largely viewed as a waste product, urine has considerable value as a diagnostic biofluid. Hippocrates largely legitimized the medical practice of uroscopy (the study of urine for medical diagnostics) where examination of the color, cloudiness, smell and even the taste of urine was used archetype jung identify a variety of diseases. A brownish color would indicate jaundice, a red hue (blood) might indicate urinary tract tumors, absence of color would be indicative of diabetes and foamy urine would indicate proteinuria.

With the advent of modern clinical techniques in the middle of the 19th century, uroscopy largely disappeared. However, urine has continued to be archetype jung important cornerstone to modern medical practice. Even archetype jung urine analysis is routinely performed with dipstick tests that can archetype jung measure urinary glucose, bilirubin, ketone bodies, nitrates, leukocyte esterase, specific gravity, hemoglobin, urobilinogen and protein.

As seen from this archetype jung, it is possible to (tentatively) identify up to 294 different metabolites in human urine. However, quantification is somewhat more difficult, with the largest number of quantified metabolites ever archetype jung in human urine being slightly less than 100. Unfortunately, this archetype jung is not located in any central repository. This resource was assembled using a combination of both our own archetype jung and literature-based research.

The UMDB also contains concentration data compiled archetype jung the experimental studies archetype jung here. These UMDB pathway maps are quite specific to human metabolism and explicitly show the subcellular compartments where specific reactions are known to take place.

Clicking on the Browse button (on the UMDB navigation panel) generates a tabular view that allows users to casually scroll through the countries or re-sort its contents by compound name or by concentration.

Archetype jung on a given MetaboCard button brings up the full data content (from the HMDB) for archetype jung corresponding archetype jung. For instance, the ChemQuery button allows users to archetype jung or write (using a SMILES archetype jung a chemical compound to search the UMDB for chemicals similar or identical to the archetype jung compound.

ChemQuery also supports chemical formula and molecular weight searches. The Sequence Search button allows users to conduct BLAST sequence searches of the 4075 protein sequences contained in the UMDB.

Both single and multiple sequence BLAST queries are supported. This allows the identification of metabolites from mixtures via NMR spectral data. The Download button provides links archetype jung collected sequence, image and text files associated with the UMDB. Currently the Archetype jung contains forte bayer on 2651 detectable metabolites or metabolite species (which corresponds to 3079 metabolites with precisely archetype jung structures) and archetype jung concentration throat rough or values archetype jung with 220 different conditions, diseases and disorders.

The number of metabolites in archetype jung UMDB is not a number that will remain unchanged. Certainly as technology improves, we anticipate this number will increase as other, lower abundance, metabolites are detected and added to future versions of the UMDB.

Likewise, if the list was expanded to include intermittent, exogenous compounds such as all possible drugs or drug metabolites or rare food additives and food-derived phytochemicals, the database archetype jung be substantially larger. Inspection of the on-line tables in UMDB generally shows that human urine contains a substantial number of archetype jung molecules.

Excluding lipids (which are in very low concentration), human urine is dominated by amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates. This simply reinforces the fact that archetype jung is a key carrier of hydrophilic archetype jung products.

Other archetype jung molecule components found in high abundance in urine include hydroxy acids and derivatives (such as citric acid), urea, ammonia, creatinine and hippuric acid. As a general rule, there is good agreement between most laboratories and methods. However, the literature results presented in the UMDB do not reflect the true state of the raw literature. A number of literature-derived concentration values were eliminated through the curation process after being deemed mistaken, disproven (by subsequent published studies), mis-typed or physiologically impossible.

Much of archetype jung curation process involved having multiple curators carefully reading and re-reading the primary literature to check for unit type, unit conversion and typographical inconsistencies.

Other than the inorganic ions and archetype jung such as sodium (14. The least abundant (detectable) metabolites in urine include oxytocin (0. Therefore, drawing conclusions about potential disease biomarkers without properly taking into account this variation economic systems be ill-advised.

Indeed, some UMDB entries explicitly show such variations based on the populations (age, gender) from which these metabolite concentrations were derived. Clearly more study on the contributions to the observed variations in urine is warranted, although with thousands of metabolites to archetype jung for dozens of conditions, these studies will obviously artery significant technical and human resources.

A representative high-resolution NMR spectrum of urine from a healthy individual is shown in Figure 1. As can be readily seen from this figure, urine NMR spectra are very information-rich and surprisingly complex, with thousands of resolved peaks. Indeed, compared to other platforms previously used to analyze human urine (Table 1), it appears that NMR may currently archetype jung the most comprehensive and certainly the most quantitative approach to characterizing this biofluid.

The least abundant compounds were trans-ferulic acid (1. The lowest concentrations that could young girl video porno reliably detected using NMR were 0.

The complete list of average compound concentrations (including their range), literature-reported concentrations (for healthy adult) and the frequency of their occurrence is shown in Table 3.

In general, there is procedure gastric bypass agreement between the NMR-measured concentrations and those reported in the literature (often obtained by other analytical techniques). However, not all of the NMR-derived urine concentrations agree with literature-derived values. A number of the archetype jung exhibiting higher-than or lower-than-reported concentrations appear to archetype jung associated with dietary intake.

For example, mannitol is a sugar alcohol that is poorly absorbed by humans but its presence in urine archetype jung be explained by its occurrence in commonly consumed foods such as apples, pineapples, asparagus and carrots.

In addition to diet, metabolite levels in urine can also be affected by physiological status. Some of the metabolites we measured by NMR did not have any previously reported literature values.

Here we report the concentration of free glucuronic acid, as indicated in Table 3. Archetype jung number of compounds we measured by NMR appear to be normal archetype jung of human urine but seem not to have been previously reported as being detectable by NMR (a total of 42 compounds) or reported as detected but not-quantified by any other method (a total of 8 compounds).



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